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Migration

Introduction

International migration is a key driver of population growth in Reading, and the number of people coming to live in Reading is considerably higher than in neighbouring boroughs. Consequently, Reading has a higher proportion of residents born outside of the UK than the South East and the UK as a whole. Local Authorities are required to consider wider factors that will impact on their communities' health and wellbeing, and this includes examining needs of residents born outside of the UK.

What do we know?

A range of ONS indicators consistently point to considerably higher rates of net international migration, and people born outside of the UK who are resident in Reading than across the South East and the UK (see Figure 1). Figure 1 demonstrates that these are established trends, with the estimated rate of non-British Nationals in the population demonstrably higher in Reading than elsewhere since at least 2010. Both peaked in 2011, but following a slight decrease in 2012 and 2013, increased again in 2014.

Figure 1: Estimates of Non-British Nationals per 1,000 Resident Population

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Source: Office of National Statistics, Migration Indicators Tool (August 2015).

Reading residents born outside of the UK

An estimated 40,000 people living in Reading in 2014 were born outside of the UK, representing 25.32% of the total population. Table 1 shows the number of individuals born in the EU, the rest of Europe and outside of Europe and as a percentage of the total population.

Local authority level data for Reading suggests that recent population increases have been driven by international migration (49.5%) and natural change (50.5%). Net international migration into Reading in the year to mid-2014 was 1,583 (1,583 more people moved to Reading from outside of the UK, than moved out of Reading to areas outside of the UK). These additional people accounted for 0.98% of the total population in mid-2014. This compares to 0.38% in the South East and 0.4% in the UK (ONS, 2015) (see Population Change module).

Table 1: No. and % of Reading residents by place of birth

Place of Birth

Number in Reading population (census 2011)

% of Reading population (census 2011)

UK

177,078

75.2%

Other EU

11,696

7.5%

Other Europe

1,274

0.8%

Other

25,650

16.5%

Source: RBC Census 2011 detailed factsheet

The largest proportions of both UK and Reading residents born outside the UK were India, Poland, Pakistan, Republic of Ireland and Germany. There are slightly higher proportions of people born in Zimbabwe, South Africa, Ghana, Hong Kong and Nigeria who are residents in Reading than in England and Wales as a whole (Census, 2011).

Table 2: Country of birth (top ten in Reading) and % of Reading population

Country of Birth (top 10 in Reading)

% of Reading Population

No. in Reading population

% of England and Wales population

No. in England and Wales population (nearest 1,000)

India

3%

4670

1.2%

694,000

Poland

2.5%

3919

1.0%

579,000

Pakistan

2%

3160

0.9%

482,000

Republic of Ireland

1.1%

1732

0.7%

407,000

Germany

0.7%

1042

0.5%

274,000

Zimbabwe

0.5%

827

0.2%

118,000

South Africa

0.5%

818

0.3%

191,000

Ghana

0.5%

816

0.2%

93,846

Hong Kong

0.5%

785

0.2%

102,000

Nigeria

0.5%

755

0.3%

191,000

Source: Census 2011 Table QS213EW and Reading Borough Council Census Statistics

Reading ward populations with the smallest proportion of people born in the UK tend to be in central areas: Abbey (55.93%); Katesgrove (60.78%); Battle (61.17%); and Park (65.21%).

The ward populations with the highest proportion born in the UK were Tilehurst (90.17%), Mapledurham (89.22%), Thames (87.26%) and Peppard (87.01%).

International migration is also likely to have an effect on patterns of ethnicity, and census data from 2001 and 2011 indicates that Reading's population has become more ethnically diverse. The largest increases have occurred amongst those identifying themselves as Other White, Black African, Other Asian and Indian (See Table 3 below and the Ethnicity section).

This broadly corresponds with the trends in international migration described above, although some trends - such as the higher than average proportions of Black African and Other Asian groups in the local population - may need further investigation.

Table 3: Ethnicity in Reading - Census data 2001 and 2011

Ethnicity Group

Reading 2001

Reading 2011

England 2011

White British

86.8%

66.9%

80.9%

Other White

4.2%

7.9%

4.6%

Mixed

2.4%

3.9%

2.2%

Indian

1.7%

4.2%

2.6%

Pakistani

2.7%

4.5%

2.1%

Other Asian

0.8%

3.9%

2.3%

Black Caribbean

2.2%

2.1%

1.1%

Black African

1.6%

4.9%

1.8%

Black Other

0.4%

0.7%

0.5%

Chinese

0.7%

1.0%

0.7%

Other ethnic group

0.7%

0.9%

1.0%

Source: Office for National Statistics, 2001 Census KS06. SASPAC Version 6. 2011 Table KS201EW

National Trends in Migration to the UK

Census data shows that 13% of the 2011 UK population was born outside of the UK; this is a statistically significant increase from 2004, when those born outside of the UK made up 8.9% of the population.

ONS analysis of the results of the Annual Population Survey shows that 4.7% of the 2014 UK population were born in the EU (but outside of the UK), 4.3% in Asia and 3.5% in the rest of the world. The report points to a statistically significant increase of residents in the UK population who were born in EU2 countries - Romania and Bulgaria - from 34,000 to 234,000 between 2007 and 2014. By contrast, the proportion of non-EU nationals in the overall population decreased, driven by a decline in the number of nationals from the 'Rest of World' category (i.e. not Europe or Asia).

Home Office analysis of the Annual Population Survey for 2012-13 found that a small majority of residents born outside of the UK originally come to the UK for economic reasons (26%). This proportion was much larger amongst those born within the European Economic Area (EEA) (44%).

Table 4: Reasons for immigration to the UK

Original Reason for coming to the UK

EEA born

Non-EEA born

All non-UK born

Economic

44%

17%

26%

Study

10%

15%

14%

Family

15%

23%

21%

Dependent

18%

21%

20%

Refugee

-

7%

5%

Other

12%

15%

14%

Source: Cooper, Campbell, Patel and Simmons (2014).

Further analysis shows that the largest numbers migrating to the UK for economic reasons are those born in: Poland (401,000 people, 60% of those born in Poland); India (173,000 people, 24% of those born in India) and Lithuania (75,000 people, 55% of those of those born in Lithuania).

The largest number of people who migrated to the UK for family reasons and as dependents were born in India (171,000 for family reasons and 176,000 as dependents) and Pakistan (167,000 for family reasons and 111,000 as dependents).

The largest numbers who migrated to study in the UK were born in India (91,000), Nigeria (54,000), Pakistan (43,000) and Ireland (30,000) (Cooper, Campbell, Patel and Simmons, 2014).

Overall, population increase in the UK in the year to June 2014 was driven by both international migration (accounting for 53% of the increase) and natural change (46%).

Those migrating to the UK are most likely to be aged 25-44 (in 2012-13 the Annual Population Survey indicated that the average age for those from the European Economic Area was 28 and for those outside of the European Economic Area was 29) and are equally split between men and women. (ONS, 2015; Cooper, Campbell, Patel and Simmonds, 2014).

Internal Migration to Reading

Net internal migration (migration within the UK) for the South East indicates that almost 20,000 additional people were living in areas of the South East in 2014, after moving from other areas of the UK, accounting for almost a quarter of the annual increase in total South East population. In the same period, Reading saw a net decrease in internal migration of 1,493 people, indicating that more people left Reading for other parts of the UK than came to Reading (see Population Change module). This is similar to trends seen in London, which saw a net decrease of 55,000 people to June 2013; like London, Reading saw a high inflow into the area, but an even higher outflow (Table 5).

Table 5: Internal Migration Inflows and Outflows in Reading and South-East

Area

In-flow

Out-flow

Number

% of mid-2013 pop

Number

% of mid-2013 pop

Reading

11,847

7.44%

13,340

8.38%

South East

242,323

2.76%

222,328

2.53%

Source: ONS (Mid-Year Estimate (Mid-Year Estimates )for Population Change for local authorities)

ONS analysis of internal London migration suggests that:

  • Young people move out of London for education
  • Graduates move into London for work
  • From their 30's onwards, more people leave London (for more affordable housing, or for social or environmental reasons, such as social and educational environment for children).

As Reading has a strong economy and low unemployment, as well as a large university, it is possible to infer that Reading may be experiencing similar trends, with young people moving into Reading for work, or graduates remaining in the town after their studies are complete (ONS, 2014). In contrast to the trends seen in London, however, Reading has seen an increase in the number of children in the population, suggesting that those moving to improve their children's social and environmental conditions may remain within the Borough.

Asylum Applications

There was a national increase of 10% on the number of asylum applications to the UK between 2014 and 2015, but overall numbers remained relatively low number compared to the peak number received in 2002.The largest number of applications for asylum came from nationals of Eritrea, Pakistan, and Syria. There are no reliable sources of data on Asylum Seekers at a local authority level.

National & Local Strategies (Current best practices)

The Marmot Review (2010) sets out the impact of inequalities on health and wellbeing and its findings and recommendations are recognised by local and national government. The Equalities Act 2010 legally protects individuals from discrimination in the workplace and in wider society. Under the act, public sector organisations such as Local Authorities have an obligation to take notice of the need to reduce inequalities that result from socioeconomic disadvantage (Equality Act, 2010). Reading has an ethnically diverse population, and Reading Borough Council has a responsibility to ensure that no groups face disadvantage as a result of their ethnic identity. Reading Borough Council refers to this obligation in its Equality Objectives (RBC, 2015) and describes the Local Authority's ongoing commitment to celebrating and respecting diversity in Reading as a key to the Borough's success. In addition, as part of their public health responsibilities, Local Authorities are required to consider wider factors that will impact on their communities' health and wellbeing (Department of Health 2013).

What is this telling us?

  • High net international migration has resulted in a higher than average proportion of those born outside of the UK in the resident population. These are likely to be mostly working age people, with the largest proportions born in Poland, India, Pakistan, Republic of Ireland and Germany, and they are more likely to be resident in areas near the town centre. A recent increase in migrants into the UK from Lithuania and Bulgaria have also been identified in Reading.

High inflow and outflow of internal migration has resulted in a net decrease in population, as young working age people move to Reading to work but move away, seeking more affordable housing and better social and environmental location.

What are the key inequalities?

Although there is little evidence that immigration to the UK has increased inequality (Equality Trust, 2015; Card, 2009), more work, including a review of relevant research evidence, is needed to understand particular health needs of particular migrant populations in Reading. For example, there is some evidence of high levels of depression, anxiety and problematic alcohol use amongst Polish migrant workers, as well as higher attendances at hospital Emergency Departments for problems usually treated in primary care (Lakasing and Mirza, 2009; Leaman, Rysdale and Webber, 2006).

What are the unmet needs / service gaps?

As the population becomes more ethnically diverse, organisations will need to continue to be mindful of the need to provide culturally competent and sensitive services to ensure that health services remain accessible and responsive to the people who need them (see population change module). As mentioned above, some migrant populations may have specific health needs that require targeted interventions. Further investigation is needed to determine where this is the case.

This section links to the following sections in the JSNA:

Population Change

Ethnicity

References

Card, D. (2009). Richard T. Ely Lecture. 'Immigration and Inequality'. American Economic Review:papers and proceedings.99:2, pp.1-21.

Cooper, J, Campbell, S, Patel, D and Simmons, J. (2014). The reason for migration and labour market characteristics of UK residents born abroad. Home Office, London. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/350927/occ110.pdf.

Department of Health (DH) (2013). Statutory Guidance on Joint Strategic Needs Assessments and Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategies. Department of Health, London. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/223842/Statutory-Guidance-on-Joint-Strategic-Needs-Assessments-and-Joint-Health-and-Wellbeing-Strategies-March-2013.pdf.

Equality Trust (2010). Has immigration increased inequality in the UK? Available at:  https://www.equalitytrust.org.uk/has-immigration-increased-inequality-uk. [

Lakasing, E, and Mirza, ZA. (2009). 'The health of Britain's Polish migrants: a suitable case for history taking and examination'. British Journal of General Practice, 59 (559), pp.138-139.

Leaman, AM, Rysdale, E and Webber, R. (2006). 'Use of emergency department by Polish migrant workers'. Emergency Medicine Journal, 23 (12), pp.918-919.

Marmot, M. (2010). Fair Society, Healthy Lives. The Marmot Review

Office of National Statistics (ONS) (2015a). MYE3: Components of Population Change for Local Authorities in the UK, mid-2014. ONS, London.

ONS (2015b). Long-Term International Migration Estimates 1991-2014 (table 2.07). ONS, London.

Office for National Statistics (2014). Focus on London Moves. ONS, London. Available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/migration1/internal-migration-by-local-authorities-in-england-and-wales/year-ending-june-2013/sty-2---focus-on-london-moves.html.

Reading Borough Council (RBC) (2012). Census 2011 - Summary for Reading. RBC, Reading. Available at: http://old.reading.gov.uk/media/1292/Reading-Census-2011-Results/pdf/Reading-Census-2011-Results.pdf.

Reading Borough Council and University of Reading (RBC UOR) (2012) Census 2011 - Detailed Factsheets.RBC, Reading. Available at: http://old.reading.gov.uk/media/1289/Census-Factsheets/pdf/Census-Factsheets.pdf.

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