2020 Air Quality Annual Status Report (ASR)

In fulfilment of Part IV of the Environment Act 1995 Local Air Quality Management (June 2020)

Contents

Executive summary: air quality in our area

Air quality in Reading

Air pollution is associated with a number of adverse health impacts. It is recognised as a contributing factor in the onset of heart disease and cancer. Additionally, air pollution particularly affects the most vulnerable in society: children and older people, and those with heart and lung conditions. There is also often a strong correlation with equalities issues, because areas with poor air quality are also often the less affluent areas (Environmental equity, air quality, socioeconomic status and respiratory health, 2010 and Air quality and social deprivation in the UK: an environmental inequalities analysis, 2006)

The annual health cost to society of the impacts of particulate matter alone in the UK is estimated to be around £16 billion (Defra. Abatement cost guidance for valuing changes in air quality, May 2013).

Reading is a heavily built up area, in which the roads get congested during peak times. The main air quality issue identified in Reading are vehicle emissions. NO2 is the only pollutant exceeding a national objective, but PM10 and PM2.5 are also pollutants of concern due to their effects on health even at low concentrations.

Reading Borough Council’s monitoring of these pollutants indicates that after years of stagnation the levels are beginning to fall again.

There is currently 1 large AQMA in Reading covering all the major arterial roads in and out of the town as well as the central area. The majority of the AQMA does not exceed national objective levels, but there are hotspot locations along each route that do.

Vehicle emissions standards mean that newer vehicles should cause less pollution than older vehicles. However, air pollution has not fallen as expected. It is now known that emissions standards have not been effective in real world driving conditions, especially in diesel vehicles. Reading has a good bus service, as well as dedicated cycle and walking routes. These options reduce the amount of pollutants an individual is responsible for emitting and are cheaper and often quicker than driving. Utilising low emission technologies, including vehicles that run on hydrogen or electricity is increasingly a viable alternative.

These alternative modes of transport have additional advantages of reducing our carbon emissions, making Reading a more pleasant place to be and promoting a healthier lifestyle.

Actions to Improve Air Quality

Reading is one of the third wave local authorities required to carry out a targeted feasibility study with the aim of bringing forward NO2 compliance in the shortest time possible. This study modelled what measures would be most effective at improving air quality in the road links identified as exceeding compliance in 2020. Of the measures put forward the retrofit of Reading’s bus fleet to EUROVI was the single most effective measure. The Joint Air Quality Unit (JAQU) has now provided funding and we are in the process of implementing this measure. The last of the buses is now now expected to be completed towards the end of 2020.

In 2019 Phase 1 of Readings ‘Go Electric’ project installed 15 lamp column electric vehicle charge points in residential streets with no off-street parking. Phase 2 will install 22kW charge points in 3 car parks located close to residential areas to encourage the uptake of electric vehicles (EVs).

A new emissions and age policy was also introduced for hackney carriages. The policy requires the fleet to meet increasingly tighter emissions standards so that by 2029 all hackney carriages must be ULEV.

Conclusions and Priorities

Reading Borough Council’s monitoring shows that NO2 is the only pollutant that currently exceeds a national objective within the AQMA. Monitoring also indicates that in general, levels of NO2 are falling. In 2019 none of our continuous analysers exceeded the annual average objective for NO2. In 2019 only NO2 diffusion tubes in 3 locations indicated an exceedance. Some diffusion tubes have been relocated, but no exceedances have been identified outside the AQMA. PM10 and PM2.5 are also pollutants of concern due to their effects on health even at low concentrations.

Priorities over the coming year are to complete the delayed retrofit of the Reading Bus fleet to EUROVI. We will also complete the project to install electric charging points to serve residential areas with no off street parking and will look at introducing some rapid electric vehicle charge points for taxi usage to encourage their uptake of EVs.

This year we are also carrying out a review of our AQAP to refresh the actions within it. This will introduce new actions and will help us to reprioritise to see which to implement to help improve air quality the most in future years.

Dealing with the current COVID-19 emergency has been a huge challenge over the last few months and this will continue to be a priority over the coming year. To date monitoring shows that the impact of this has improved air quality with lockdown restrictions in place. However, it is uncertain how this will change and what new challenges this will bring as restrictions are eased.

Local engagement and how to get Involved

Local interest in air quality has never been higher; this is reflected in the number of enquiries that the Council is getting from interested local community groups and Councillors trying to find out more on the subject.

Reading has a good bus service, as well as dedicated cycle and walking routes. These options reduce the amount of pollutants an individual is responsible for emitting and are cheaper and often quicker than driving. Walking and cycling have become an even more important way of getting around during the COVID-19 emergency. Reading Borough Council are introducing additional infrastructure to help make these even more attractive options, which it is hoped will encourage a permanent increase in the numbers using sustainable transport. Anyone looking to reduce their own impact on air pollution is encouraged to use these options and help make Reading a healthier and more pleasant place to live.

If you are sensitive to the effects of air pollution, you may wish to take measures to minimise your exposure such as:

  • Limiting the length of time spent in busy roadside locations where the highest pollution concentrations occur.
  • Exercise in the morning when ozone levels are lower.

It is particularly important for those sensitive to pollution to take these actions on days when air pollution is forecast to be high. See a five day forecast.

Up to date local monitoring data.

More general up to date information on air quality.

1 – Local Air Quality Management

This report provides an overview of air quality in Reading during 2020. It fulfils the requirements of Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) as set out in Part IV of the Environment Act (1995) and the relevant Policy and Technical Guidance documents.

The LAQM process places an obligation on all local authorities to regularly review and assess air quality in their areas, and to determine whether or not the air quality objectives are likely to be achieved. Where an exceedance is considered likely the local authority must declare an Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) and prepare an Air Quality Action Plan (AQAP) setting out the measures it intends to put in place in pursuit of the objectives. This Annual Status Report (ASR) is an annual requirement showing the strategies employed by Reading Borough Council to improve air quality and any progress that has been made.

The statutory air quality objectives applicable to LAQM in England can be found in Table E.1 in Appendix E.

2 Actions to Improve Air Quality

2.1 Air Quality Management Areas

Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) are declared when there is an exceedance or likely exceedance of an air quality objective. After declaration, the authority must prepare an Air Quality Action Plan (AQAP) within 12-18 months setting out measures it intends to put in place in pursuit of compliance with the objectives.

A summary of AQMAs declared by Reading Borough Council can be found below. Further information related to declared or revoked AQMAs, including maps of AQMA boundaries are available online.

Alternatively, see Appendix D: Map(s) of Monitoring Locations and AQMAs, which provides for a map of air quality monitoring locations in relation to the AQMA.

Declared AQMAs for Reading

  • AQMA name – Reading AQMA
  • Date of declaration – 19/08/2009
  • Pollutants and air quality objectives – NO2 Annual Mean
  • City/town – Reading
  • Description – An area encompassing all the main arterial routes in and out of Reading and central area.
  • Is air quality in the AQMA influenced by roads controlled by Highways England? – Yes
  • Level of Exceedance (maximum monitored/modelled concentration at a location of relevant exposure)
    • At declaration: unknown
    • Now: 4 µg/m3

Reading Borough Council confirm the information on UK-Air regarding their AQMA is up to date.

2.2 Progress and impact of measures to address air quality in Reading

Defra accepted Reading’s 2019 ASR but made comments about some inconsistences in the data. Efforts have been made to address these in the 2020 report.  

Reading Borough Council has taken forward a number of direct measures during the current reporting year of 2020 in pursuit of improving local air quality. Details of all measures completed, in progress or planned are set out in Table 2.2.

Key completed measures are:

  • Updated taxi emissions policy.
  • Phase 1 of the ‘Go electric’ project to Installation of 15 lamp column electric vehicle charge points.

Reading Borough Council expects the following measures to be completed over the course of the next reporting year:

  • The retrofit of the bus fleet to EURO6 emissions standard. – This is predicted to bring forward compliance on 3 of the 4 road links that are modelled to still have an exceedance of the annual mean objective for NO2 after 2020.
  • Phase 2 of the ‘Go Electric’ project to install EV chargepoints in 3 car parks close to areas without off street parking. This will provide residents who cannot charge at home an option near to their home so that they can consider an electric vehicle as a next car.
  • Reading Borough Council are also reviewing our AQAP so that we have an up to date picture of air quality in Reading and can refresh and reprioritise our actions in line with what will be the most effective in tackling harmful levels of air pollution.

Reading’s priorities for the coming year are to complete the above-mentioned projects and to look to introduce some EV charge points for taxis near to the town centre to encourage the uptake of EVs by the taxi fleet.

The principal challenges and barriers to implementation that Reading Borough Council anticipates facing are financial, in terms of have the available budget to implement the measures that Reading would like to. There are also likely to be ongoing issues related to the COVID-19 Pandemic on service delivery. This could be complications due to another spike in cases or in terms of additional financial pressure.

Progress on the following measures has been slower than expected:

  • Bus retrofit –There are a wide range of buses in the fleet, each needing a different emissions kit design to fit it. The development of some of these has been more difficult and has taken longer than expected delaying the completion of the project.
  • Go Electric – We are still experiencing delays in getting the charge points installed due to COVID-19. We are reliant on SSE for the electrical supply, but they have only been carrying out emergency work during the lockdown. They are now working through a backlog, but to date we have not been able to schedule in a new date for the supplies to be made ready.

Whilst the measures stated above and in Table 2.2 will help to contribute towards compliance, Reading Borough Council anticipates that further additional measures not yet prescribed will be required in subsequent years to achieve compliance and enable the revocation of the Reading AQMA.

Table 2.2 Progress on Measures to Improve Air Quality

Measure numberMeasure EU Category EU Classification Date Measure Introduced Organisations involved Funding Source Key Performance Indicator Reduction in Pollutant / Emission from Measure Progress to Date Estimated / Actual Completion Date Comments / Barriers to implementation 
RDAQ1 Railway upgrade Transport Planning and Infrastructure Public transport improvements-interchanges stations and services Sep-17 Network Rail Network Rail Reduced congestion
Improved journey times
Improved air quality
modelled to reduce NO2 levels by 1µg/m3 on Chatham street. Interchange works complete. Cow Lane opened to two-way traffic in March 2019 and further improvements to walking and cycling facilities have been completed. wayfinding and cycle parking security improvements now to be installed at Reading Station interchange ongoing funding 
RDAQ2 Green Park Station Transport Planning and Infrastructure Public transport improvements-interchanges stations and services Jan-18 RBC, GWR & Network Rail
Funded by LEP
RBC, GWR & Network Rail
Funded by LEP
Reduced congestion on A33 Provide alternative route into Reading from Green Park Village. Reduced vehicle emissions Implementation ongoing. GRIP 1-3 (NR standard) designs delayed overall progress. Works to commence from Dec 19. Dec-20 Revised Planning approval from West Berks / Wokingham. Network Rail Governance process (network change etc).  Failure to agree scope freeze with TOC. Increased costs as a result of delay and scope creep. The risks associated with this project are being managed with DfT involvement being sought to support these particular challenges.
RDAQ3 Southern Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Transport Planning and Infrastructure Bus route improvements Date RBC RBC
Funded by LEP
Improved journey times for public transport
Increase in the number of people using public transport for local journeys
Reduced vehicle emissions Phase 1 to  4 have been completed. Further phases continuing to be developed in accordance with LEP plan. ongoing Subject to ongoing funding approval from LEP.
RDAQ4 Eastern MRT Transport Planning and Infrastructure Bus route improvements RBC RBC
Funded by LEP
Improved journey times for public transport
Increase in the number of people using public transport for local journeys
Improved accessibility for pedestrians and cyclists
  Planning consent refused by WBC and funding was subsequently reallocated by LEP. N/A Planning consent refused by WBC and funding was subsequently reallocated by LEP.
RDAQ5 Southern (Mereoak) Park & Ride Transport Planning and Infrastructure Public transport improvements-interchanges stations and services Complete RBC RBC, WBC Increased use of park and ride facilities Reduced vehicle emissions Car park opened August 2015, served by Greenwave buses as a pre-MRT service. Continued increased use of park and ride and Greenwave services. complete Service improvements dependent upon delivery of future phases of MRT South.
RDAQ6 Winnersh Park & Ride Transport Planning and Infrastructure Public transport improvements-interchanges stations and services Complete RBC RBC, WBC Increased use of park and ride facilities Reduced vehicle emissions Complete with full commercial operation October 2015.
Due to scheme success plans in place and funding allocated by LEP for ‘decking’ of the car park to increase capacity. Bus company intends to increase service frequency following completion of decking.
complete  
RDAQ7 East (Thames Valley Park) Park & Ride Transport Planning and Infrastructure Public transport improvements-interchanges stations and services Summer 2019 RBC WBC
Funded by LEP
Increased use of park and ride facilities potentially result in 554 less car journeys into town each day.Reduced vehicle emissions Construction commenced summer 2018. completed Oct 2019 Full benefits unlikely to be reached due to non-delivery of East MRT
RDAQ8 Traffic signal upgrading Traffic Management UTC, Congestion management, traffic reduction   RBC         N/A not taken forward due to unexpected costs relocating services
RDAQ9 A33 Congestionpinchpoint relief scheme Transport Planning and Infrastructure Other Complete RBC RBC
Funded by DfT
Improved journey times Reduced vehicle emissions Complete complete  
RDAQ10 A4 Congestion relief pinchpoint scheme Transport Planning and Infrastructure Other   RBC         N/A not taken forward due to unexpected costs relocating services
RDAQ11 Work towards electrification of vehicle fleet Promoting Low Emission Transport Company Vehicle Procurement -Prioritising uptake of low emission vehicles   RBC RBC procurement of electric charge points and vehicles Reduced vehicle emissions 4 charge points installed at civic offices. 3 at Bennet Rd. 5 electric vans on RBC fleet. 2 EV pool cars. 15 lamp column charge points installed in residential locations without off street parking On-going. EV charge point scheme funding
RDAQ12 Expansion of Ready Bike cycle scheme Promoting Travel Alternatives Promotion of cycling Ongoing RBC RBC, Hourbike Increase in the number of journeys made by ReadyBike Providing a readily available alternative to cars, buses or taxis leading to a reduction in vehicle emissions. Potentially 193384g NO2 over lifetime of scheme ReadyBike monitoring data shows that 109,468 rentals and 19,229 subscriptions over an estimated 483,460 miles were made by ReadyBike since the scheme launch in June 2014 to April 2019. complete Hourbike was appointed in September 2017 to manage and operate ReadyBike at zero subsidy for a minimum 3 year period.
However in February 2019 Hourbike informed RBC that it was no longer able to operate ReadyBike. The service is currently not operating whilst RBC investigate options with potential  operators.
RDAQ13 Cross boundary cycle routes Transport Planning and Infrastructure Cycle network Ongoing RBC RBC, West Berks, Wokingham Council & Bracknell Forest Council
Funded by LEP
Increase number of people cycling along cross-boundary routes Providing infrastruture to enable people to feel safe when riding to increase uptake in cycling rather than personal vehicle. Not quantified, but measure should lead to a reduction in vehicle emissions Phase 1 to 3 of NCN Route 422 completed end 2019. complete .
RDAQ14 Cycle route infrastructure improvements Transport Planning and Infrastructure Cycle network  Ongoing RBC RBC Increase in the number of people cycling for local journeys Improve cycle routes to increase cycle usage. Currently developing Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan in partnership with Wokingham and West Berkshire. Recent workshop held with Cycle Forum to identify possible improvements along proposed routes. Dec-20 Delivery of improvements identified in LCWIP and other new schemes, subject to funding being secured.
RDAQ15 Thames pedestrian/cycle bridge Transport Planning and Infrastructure Cycle network Complete RBC RBC
Funded by DfT
Increase in number of cycling & walking trips to/from Caversham Increased walking and cycling into town. Complete September 2015.
Post-LSTF monitoring data shows an increase in the number of pedestrians and cyclists crossing the River Thames.
The Council is now planning to expand the cycle network in the vincity of the bridge by changing the legal status of the footpath to shared-use. Public consultation carried out in Summer 2017 resulted in 191 objections to the proposal, which will now be passed to the Secretary of State for determination.
complete  
RDAQ16 Minimising industrial emissions Environmental Permits Other measure through permit systems and economic instruments ongoing RBC RBC inspections of permitted installations carried out. EP Annual subscriptions and applications. Annual search for unpermitted processes Reduce industrial emissions to air      
RDAQ17 Through Reading Climate Change Partnership increase business participation in reducing emissions through measures such as cycle to work schemes, reducing building energy, low emission delivery vehicles. Policy Guidance and Development Control Regional Groups Co-ordinating programmes to develop Area wide Strategies to reduce emissions and improve air quality ongoing RBC RBC, Sustainability Reading climate change partnership     2020  
RDAQ18 Through planning process ensuring that future development does not result in further deterioration of air quality and where possible results in an improvement Policy Guidance and Development Control Air Quality Planning and Policy Guidance ongoing RBC RBC Air Quality assessements produced for new developments. Monitoring results   Strategic AQ assessment completed in 2017/18 to focus on cumulative impact of developments Jan-18  
RDAQ19 Ensure that measures to address air quality do not conflict with climate change actions, by considering the interlinked causal factors and promoting mutually beneficial solutions Policy Guidance and Development Control Air Quality Planning and Policy Guidance Ongoing RBC RBC       ongoing  
RDAQ20 Continue Reading Buses investment Programme to ensure the bus fleet has the lowest emissions it can. Vehicle Fleet Efficiency Promoting Low Emission Public Transport Ongoing RBC RBC, Reading Buses   Retrofit to bring forward compliance with No2 target by upto 2 years. Predicted to reduce level of NO2 by 8µg/m3 on Friar Street Bus fleet in June 2018 included 62 x CNG buses or 33%. The percentage of the fleet now Euro 5 or 6 emissions compliant is 81%. Following the 2018 Targeted Feasibility Study to Deliver Nitrogen Dioxide Concentration Compliance in the shortest possible time, funding awarded to retrofit all RTL fleet to Euro 6 compliance by December 2019 Dec-20  
RDAQ21 Continue to explore and implement ways to improve emissions from Readings taxi fleet. Vehicle Fleet Efficiency Other ongoing RBC RBC measures introduced to improve emissions from taxis Reduce taxi emissions taxi emissions policy introduced to incrementally improve emissions standards of fleet to 2029 when all must be ULEV 2020  
Promoting Low Emission Public Transport ongoing RBC RBC measures introduced to improve emissions from taxis Reduce taxi emissions telematics devices fitted to a number of taxis to investigate feasibility of converting to electric and identifying EV charge point locations 2018  
RDAQ22 Reduce emissions from idling vehicles at hotspot locations within the AQMA. Public Information Via other mechanisms ongoing RBC RBC reducion on emissions in idling hotspots   competition for children to design a sign  to be put out at idling hotspots underway 2018 to be followed up with officers talking to drivers and issuing FPNs where necessary
Via other mechanisms ongoing RBC RBC reducion on emissions in idling hotspots   Idling action campaign days in town and at schools to increase awareness 2018  
RDAQ23 Via other mechanisms ongoing RBC RBC Raise awareness reduction of emissions in idling hortspots aquired 39 pledges from drivers that they would not idle in the future Idling action campaign day in town for Clean Air Day 2019  
Continue to offer Bikeability cycle training to all schools across Reading Promoting Travel Alternatives Promotion of cycling on-going RBC RBC
Funded by DfT
Increase the number of children cycling to school   Participation in Bikeability continues to increase with over 1782 childen receiving Bikeability training in 2018/19. Mar-20 Funding secured for the delivery of Bikeability until March 2020, including new Bikeability Plus modules.
RDAQ24 Continued funding for a Cycle development officer to help promote cycling and deliver the Cycling Strategy. Promoting Travel Alternatives Promotion of cycling Complete RBC RBC
Funded by DfT
Increase the number of people cycling for local journeys   Complete Mar-16 RBC to investigate new funding opportunities to continue delivering a range of cycling initiatives in the future.
RDAQ25 Continue to inspire people to walk more via initiatives such as Beat the Street. Promoting Travel Alternatives Promotion of walking Complete RBC RBC
Funded by DfT & CCG
Increase the number of people walking for local journeys   Complete Jul-15 RBC to seek new funding opportunities to continue delivering a range of walking initiatives in the future.
RBC in process of developing a Local Cycling & Walking Infrastructure Plan to encourage more people to consider travelling by these modes for local journeys.
RDAQ26 Continue to monitor air pollution at existing monitoring locations and make results available to view on RBC website. Public Information Other Ongoing RBC RBC Monitoring data available on
RBC website. Achieve a good level of data capture.
none Ongoing 2020  
RDAQ27 Investigate the feasibility of introducing locally based alert system to inform residents of forecasted pollution episodes. Public Information Other Complete RBC RBC complete an assessment of the feasibility of such a system none Investigations show that uptake would be limited. Cost benefit indicates that it is not currently feasible. 2016 Funding
RDAQ28 Bonfires – Provide advice to residents and take enforcement action where appropriate to discourage the use of bonfires when disposing of waste material. Public Information Via the Internet Ongoing RBC RBC number of enquiries     ongoing  
RDAQ29 Solid Fuel Burning – The Smoke Control Survey 2014; Showed there was a relative lack of knowledge of smoke control areas, it is now proposed to inform people of the existence of smoke control areas, how to find out if you live in one and what you should or shouldn’t do if you live in one. This will be done through an awareness raising campaign to promote best practice for people heating their homes using wood, coal and other solid fuels. Public Information Via other mechanisms Complete RBC RBC responses to survey unknown of 4000 surveys sent our 720 responses were received. Press releases awere sent out and webpages were updated with information in an attempt to raise peoples awareness 2016  
RDAQ30 Provide advice, guidance and support to improve home energy efficiency through the private sector renewal scheme and winter watch. Public Information Via other mechanisms Ongoing RBC RBC          
RDAQ31 Generate a larger proportion of energy from renewable sources. Promoting Low Emission Plant Other Policy   RBC   Government registration unknown 2020    
RDAQ32 Railway and Interchange Upgrade Transport Planning and Infrastructure Public transport improvements-interchanges stations and services Ongoing RBC RBC, GWR – Funded by LEP Increase number of people using station, reduce congestion and improve air quality Reduced vehicle emissions Scheme granted programme entry by BLTB in Feb 2019. Work currently to produce Full Business Case, undertake utility service survyes and comission Design and Build Consultant. Mar-21 Complexities of dealing with rail projects could see scheme costs and timeframe increase.

2.3 PM2.5 – Local Authority Approach to Reducing Emissions and/or Concentrations

As detailed in Policy Guidance LAQM.PG16 (Chapter 7), local authorities are expected to work towards reducing emissions and/or concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5µm or less). There is clear evidence that PM2.5 has a significant impact on human health, including premature mortality, allergic reactions, and cardiovascular diseases.

The indicator for PM2.5 on the Public Health Outcomes Framework (PHOF) is: Fraction of mortality attributable to particulate air pollution. The PHOF shows this to currently be 6% in Reading, compared to 5.3% nationally.

Reading Borough Council have included the following target in the corporate plan – Narrow the gap to the national average (5.3%) of deaths in over 25s linked to PM2.5.

In order to do this, it is proposed to continue to implement the AQAP. The action plan targets anthropogenic emissions of pollution from vehicles, industry and other sources. Although the action plan was drawn up to address exceedances of NO2 objectives, PM2.5 is a pollutant that is emitted from the same sources, so where an action reduces emissions of NO2, PM2.5 will also be reduced.

The following non transport related measures from table 2.2 above may more directly help to address mortality from anthropogenic PM2.5:

Measure No. RDAQ16 (industrial emissions), RDAQ27 (bonfires) and RDAQ28 (solid wood burning)

3 Air Quality Monitoring Data and Comparison with Air Quality Objectives and National Compliance

3.1 Summary of Monitoring Undertaken

3.1.1 Automatic Monitoring Sites

This section sets out what monitoring has taken place and how it compares with objectives.

Reading Borough Council undertook automatic (continuous) monitoring at 3 sites during 2019. Table A.1 in Appendix A shows the details of the sites. NB. Local authorities do not have to report annually on the following pollutants: 1,3 butadiene, benzene, carbon monoxide and lead, unless local circumstances indicate there is a problem. National monitoring results are available.

Maps showing the location of the monitoring sites are provided in Appendix D. Further details on how the monitors are calibrated and how the data has been adjusted are included in Appendix C.

3.1.2 Non-Automatic Monitoring Sites

Reading Borough Council undertook non- automatic (passive) monitoring of NO2 at 60 sites during 2019. Table A.2 in Appendix A shows the details of the sites.

Maps showing the location of the monitoring sites are provided in Appendix D. Further details on Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) for the diffusion tubes, including bias adjustments and any other adjustments applied (e.g. “annualisation” and/or distance correction), are included in Appendix C.

3.2 Individual Pollutants

The air quality monitoring results presented in this section are, where relevant, adjusted for bias, “annualisation” (where the data capture falls below 75%), and distance correction (Fall-off with distance correction criteria is provided in paragraph 7.77, LAQM.TG(16)). Further details on adjustments are provided in Appendix C.

3.2.1 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

Table A.3 in Appendix A compares the ratified and adjusted monitored NO2 annual mean concentrations for the past 5 years with the air quality objective of 40µg/m3. Note that the concentration data presented in Table A.3 represents the concentration at the location of the monitoring site, following the application of bias adjustment and annualisation, as required (i.e. the values are exclusive of any consideration to fall-off with distance adjustment).

For diffusion tubes, the full 2019 dataset of monthly mean values is provided in Appendix B. Note that the concentration data presented in Table B.1 includes distance corrected values, only where relevant.

Table A.4 in Appendix A compares the ratified continuous monitored NO2 hourly mean concentrations for the past 5 years with the air quality objective of 200µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 18 times per year.

As can be seen from figure A.3 below, levels of nitrogen dioxide have generally fallen slightly which continues the recent downwards trend. All three continuous monitoring stations were below the annual mean objective for NO2. Concentrations at the Caversham Road AQMS fell by 5µg/m3 to 35µg/m3 in 2019.

The Kings Road AQMS was moved to London Road to become DEFRA affiliated in 2016. This site has continued to monitor levels of NO2 below the annual average NAQO for NO2 (27mg/m3). NO2 levels at Oxford Road (26mg/m3) our other roadside monitoring station is also below the annual mean NAQO for NO2.

The diffusion tube monitoring results are showing a similar downwards trend, with only 5 locations indicating an exceedance of the annual mean objective for NO2 in 2019, with a further 11 locations indicating a borderline exceedance (36-40µg/m3). This is compared with 13 locations in exceedance and a further 13 indicating a borderline exceedance in 2018.

None of the continuous monitoring stations or diffusion tube locations indicate an exceedence of the 1- hour mean objective.

3.2.2 Particulate Matter (PM10)

Table A.5 in Appendix A compares the ratified and adjusted monitored PM10 annual mean concentrations for the past 5 years with the air quality objective of 40µg/m3.

Table A.6 in Appendix A compares the ratified continuous monitored PM10 daily mean concentrations for the past 5 years with the air quality objective of 50µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 35 times per year.

The tables show that levels have largely remained steady over the last 5 years. There are no exceedances of any air quality objectives for PM10.

3.3.3 Particulate Matter (PM2.5)

Table A.7 in Appendix A presents the ratified and adjusted monitored PM2.5 annual mean concentrations for the past 5 years.

PM2.5 was 8µg/m3 in 2019. Table A.7 shows that levels have fluctuated a little over the last 5 years between 7-10µg/m3.

Appendix A: Monitoring Results

Table A.1 – Details of Automatic Monitoring Sites

Site ID Site Name Site Type X OS Grid Ref (Easting) Y OS Grid Ref (Northing) Pollutants Monitored In AQMA? Monitoring Technique Distance to Relevant Exposure (m) (1) Distance to kerb of nearest road (m) (2) Inlet Height (m)
Reading AURN AURN Urban Background 473441 173198 NO2; PM10; PM2.5; O3 NO Chemiluminescent; TEOM FDMS; UV Photometrics N/A 100 2.5
RD1 Caversham Rd Roadside 471153 174429 NO2, PM10 YES Chemiluminescent; Beta-Attenuation Mass 2 3 1.5
RD3 Oxford Rd Roadside 468700 174126 NO2, PM10 YES Chemiluminescent; Beta-Attenuation Mass 9 6 1.5
RD4 London Rd Roadside 473703 173409 NO2, PM10 YES Chemiluminescent; Beta-Attenuation Mass 16 3.5 1.5

Notes:

(1) 0m if the monitoring site is at a location of exposure (e.g. installed on the façade of a residential property).

(2) N/A if not applicable 

Table A.2 – Details of Non-Automatic Monitoring Sites

Site ID Site Name Site Type X OS Grid Ref (Easting) Y OS Grid Ref (Northing) Pollutants Monitored In AQMA? Distance to Relevant Exposure (m) (1) Distance to kerb of nearest road (m) (2) Tube collocated with a Continuous Analyser? Height (m)
King Oak Flats King Oak Flats Roadside 472015 173223 NO2 Yes 0 5.5 NO 2.3
181 Kings road 181 Kings road Roadside 472513 173281 NO2 Yes 12 2 NO 2.3
Charles Place, 246 Kings Road Charles Place, 246 Kings Road Roadside 46955 173249 NO2 Yes 8.5 2.5 NO 2.3
AURN AURN Urban Centre 473467 173207 NO2 Yes N/A N/A YES 3
AURN AURN Urban Background 473467 173207 NO2 Yes N/A N/A YES 3
AURN AURN Urban Background 473467 173207 NO2 Yes N/A N/A YES 3
Wycliffe Baptist Church Wycliffe Baptist Church Roadside 472071 173157 NO2 Yes 20 3.5 NO 2.3
Amity Road Amity Road Kerbside 473233 173244 NO2 Yes 1 0.5 NO 2.3
17 Church Rd Earley 17 Church Rd Earley Roadside 474421 172054 NO2 Yes 0 3 NO 2.3
162 London Rd 162 London Rd Roadside 473490 173326 NO2 Yes 0 6.5 NO 2.3
419 London Rd 419 London Rd Roadside 473729 173432 NO2 Yes 0 9 NO 2.3
276 Kings Road 276 Kings Road Roadside 472716 173218 NO2 Yes 0 10 NO 2.3
Sidmouth Street – Trinity Hall Sidmouth Street – Trinity Hall Roadside 472071 173157 NO2 Yes 3 3 NO 2.3
Shinfield Rd/Whitley Wood Rd Shinfield Rd/Whitley Wood Rd Roadside 473338 170269 NO2 Yes 10 5 NO 2.3
Shinfield Rd/Cedar Rd Shinfield Rd/Cedar Rd Kerbside 473354 170482 NO2 Yes 5 1 NO 2.3
Exbourne Road Exbourne Road Roadside 472341 169731 NO2 No 0 5 NO 2.3
Red Cow Red Cow Roadside 471685 172853 NO2 Yes 0 1.5 NO 2.3
44 Crown Street 44 Crown Street Roadside 471717 172856 NO2 Yes 0 4.5 NO 2.3
Blenheim Terrace, Castle Hill Blenheim Terrace, Castle Hill Roadside 471061 173018 NO2 Yes 2 3 NO 2.3
128 Castle Hill 128 Castle Hill Roadside 470987 173016 NO2 Yes 0 2.5 NO 2.3
162a Castle Hill 162a Castle Hill Roadside 470835 172992 NO2 Yes 0 8 NO 2.3
306 Tilehurst Rd/Water Rd 306 Tilehurst Rd/Water Rd Roadside 468866 173071 NO2 Yes 5 2 NO 2.3
689 Oxford Rd 689 Oxford Rd Roadside 468978 173895 NO2 Yes 0 2.5 NO 2.3
744 Oxford Rd 744 Oxford Rd Roadside 468967 173935 NO2 Yes 0 2.5 NO 2.3
494 Oxford Rd 494 Oxford Rd Roadside 469470 173715 NO2 Yes 0 5 NO 2.3
Cow Lane Bridges Cow Lane Bridges Kerbside 470230 173818 NO2 Yes 20 1 NO 2.3
252 Oxford Rd 252 Oxford Rd Roadside 470080 143511 NO2 Yes 0 3.5 NO 2.3
327 Oxford Rd 327 Oxford Rd Roadside 470057 173489 NO2 Yes 0 7.5 NO 2.3
281 Oxford Rd 281 Oxford Rd Roadside 470294 173445 NO2 Yes 0 6.5 NO 2.3
Malthouse Lane Malthouse Lane Roadside 48360 173511 NO2 Yes 0 2.5 NO 2.3
the Butler the Butler Roadside 48360 173517 NO2 Yes 5 3.5 NO 2.3
10 Trinity Place 10 Trinity Place Roadside 470738 173433 NO2 Yes 0 7.5 NO 2.3
165 Oxford Rd 165 Oxford Rd Roadside 470717 173373 NO2 Yes 0 4 NO 2.3
Sackville Street Sackville Street Roadside 471177 173641 NO2 Yes 0 0.5 NO 2.3
Friar St (Nandos) Friar St (Nandos) Roadside 471437 173589 NO2 Yes 7 5 NO 2.3
21A Friars Walk, Friars Street 21A Friars Walk, Friars Street Roadside 471373 173584 NO2 Yes 3 1 NO 2.3
Sainsburys 52-55 Friar Street Sainsburys 52-55 Friar Street Roadside 471320 173577 NO2 Yes 3 1 NO 2.3
Station Hill (Near Bus stop WN) Station Hill (Near Bus stop WN) Roadside 471324 173820 NO2 Yes 25 1 NO 2.3
Station Hill (Near Taxi Station) Station Hill (Near Taxi Station) Roadside 471413 173808 NO2 Yes 20 1 NO 2.3
33 Caversham Rd 33 Caversham Rd Roadside 471123 173734 NO2 Yes 0 3 NO 2.3
Malcolm Place Malcolm Place Roadside 471174 173846 NO2 Yes 6 1 NO 2.3
50 Cardiff Rd 50 Cardiff Rd Roadside 470828 174076 NO2 Yes 4 4 NO 2.3
125 Cardiff Rd 125 Cardiff Rd Roadside 470866 174059 NO2 Yes 0 2 NO 2.3
131 Caversham Rd 131 Caversham Rd Roadside 471261 174236 NO2 Yes 0 7 NO 2.3
31a Vastern Rd 31a Vastern Rd Roadside 471420 174129 NO2 Yes 3 3 NO 2.3
108 Caversham Rd 108 Caversham Rd Roadside 471293 174236 NO2 Yes 0 6.5 NO 2.3
Caversham AQMS Caversham AQMS Roadside 471156 174424 NO2 Yes 5 5 YES 1.5
Caversham AQMS Caversham AQMS Roadside 471156 174424 NO2 Yes 5 5 YES 1.5
Caversham AQMS Caversham AQMS Roadside 471156 174424 NO2 Yes 5 5 YES 1.5
197 Caversham Rd 197 Caversham Rd Roadside 471161 174379 NO2 Yes 0 7 NO 2.5
Railway Depot Railway Depot Roadside 470899 174017 NO2 Yes 20 N/A NO 1.5
14 Church Road 14 Church Road Roadside 471103 174774 NO2 Yes 0 2.5 NO 2.3
Cavesham Café Cavesham Café Roadside 471401 174790 NO2 Yes 0 2 NO 2.3
Baron Cadagon Baron Cadagon Roadside 471461 174840 NO2 Yes 0 5 NO 2.3
45 Prospect Street 45 Prospect Street Roadside 471558 174919 NO2 Yes 0 1.5 NO 2.3
59 Prospect Street 59 Prospect Street Roadside 471599 174966 NO2 Yes 0 1 NO 2.3
60 Prospect Street 60 Prospect Street Roadside 471557 174944 NO2 Yes 0 3 NO 2.3
68 George Street 68 George Street Roadside 471913 174490 NO2 Yes 0 3 NO 2.3
40 George Street 40 George Street Roadside 471909 174543 NO2 Yes 0 3.5 NO 2.3
241 Gosbrook Road 241 Gosbrook Road Roadside 471942 174600 NO2 Yes 0 6 NO 2.3

Notes:

(1) 0m if the monitoring site is at a location of exposure (e.g. installed on the façade of a residential property).

(2) N/A if not applicable.

Table A.3 – Annual Mean NO2 Monitoring Results

Site ID X OS Grid Ref (Easting) Y OS Grid Ref (Northing) Site Type Monitoring Type Valid Data Capture for Monitoring Period (%) (1) Valid Data Capture 2019 (%) (2) 20152016201720182019
AURN 473441 173198 Urban Background Automatic 58 58 22 34 29 26 22
RD1 471153 174429 Roadside Automatic 100 100 38 39 37 40 35
RD3 468700 174126 Roadside Automatic 99 99 31 30 28 28 26
RD4 473703 173409 Roadside Automatic 100 100   32 28 30 27
King Oak Flats 472015 173223 Urban Centre Diffusion Tube 92 92 33 33 31 32 28
181 Kings road 472513 173281 Roadside Diffusion Tube 67 67         35
Charles Place, 246 Kings Road 46955 173249 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92         41
AURN 473467 173207 Urban Background Diffusion Tube 100 100 18 19 18 18 17
AURN 473467 173207 Urban Background Diffusion Tube 100 100 18 18 19 19 17
AURN 473467 173207 Urban Background Diffusion Tube 100 100 18 19 18 19 17
Wycliffe Baptist Church 472071 173157 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 49 40 37 39
Amity Road 473233 173244 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92         29
17 Church Rd Earley 474421 172054 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 42 40 42 38 34
162 London Rd 473490 173326 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 48 42 43 40 38
419 London Rd 473729 173432 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 43 42 44 39 35
276 Kings Road 472716 173218 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92 33 32 32 30 26
Sidmouth Street – Trinity Hall 472071 173157 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100       37 34
Shinfield Rd/Whitley Wood Rd 473338 170269 Roadside Diffusion Tube 83 83 30 34 31 31 26
Shinfield Rd/Cedar Rd 473354 170482 Kerbside Diffusion Tube 92 92 39 42 38 34 34
Exbourne Road 472341 169731 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92         15
Red Cow 471685 172853 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 38 38 35 38 31
44 Crown Street 471717 172856 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 36 37 35 34 29
Blenheim Terrace, Castle Hill 471061 173018 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 40 39 39 33 34
128 Castle Hill 470987 173016 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92 45 45 46 42 39
162a Castle Hill 470835 172992 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92 36 37 35 35 34
306 Tilehurst Rd/Water Rd 468866 173071 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 34 32 32 31 30
689 Oxford Rd 468978 173895 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 40 40 41 37 35
744 Oxford Rd 468967 173935 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 47 46 42 47 39
494 Oxford Rd 469470 173715 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 35 37 32 35 29
Cow Lane Bridges 470230 173818 Kerbside Diffusion Tube 83 83 31 32 33 29 34
252 Oxford Rd 470080 143511 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 32 35 34 34 31
327 Oxford Rd 470057 173489 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 43 40 40 39 34
281 Oxford Rd 470294 173445 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 45 44 45 42 36
Malthouse Lane 48360 173511 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92         31
the Butler 48360 173517 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92         32
10 Trinity Place 470738 173433 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 31 31 29 32 26
165 Oxford Rd 470717 173373 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 47 44 47 42 37
Sackville Street 471177 173641 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92 40 37 37 38 32
Friar St (Nandos) 471437 173589 Kerbside Diffusion Tube 100 100 47 52 50 42 41
21A Friars Walk, Friars Street 471373 173584 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100         39
Sainsburys 52-55 Friar Street 471320 173577 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92         40
Station Hill 2 (Near Bus stop WN) 471324 173820 Roadside Diffusion Tube 83 83 50 47 35 38
Station Hill 1(Near Taxi Station) 471413 173808 Roadside Diffusion Tube 75 75 47 49 33 35
33 Caversham Rd 471123 173734 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92 48 43 45 44 35
Malcolm Place 471174 173846 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92 42 41 43 39 52
50 Cardiff Rd 470828 174076 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 32 29 30 28 22
125 Cardiff Rd 470866 174059 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 32 28 28 23 19
131 Caversham Rd 471261 174236 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 40 36 36 35 32
31a Vastern Rd 471420 174129 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 36 37 38 33 28
108 Caversham Rd 471293 174236 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 41 41 40 42 35
Caversham AQMS 471156 174424 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 38 37 38 35 32
Caversham AQMS 471156 174424 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 37 38 36 37 31
Caversham AQMS 471156 174424 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92 37 36 37 37 35
197 Caversham Rd 471161 174379 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 39 35 36 34 31
Railway Depot 470899 174017 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 39 35 34 27 22
14 Church Road 471103 174774 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 35 37 36 37 33
Cavesham Café 471401 174790 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 42 42 37 42 35
Baron Cadagon 471461 174840 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 44 46 44 41 36
45 Prospect Street 471558 174919 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 39 38 37 36 33
59 Prospect Street 471599 174966 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 49 48 45 46 41
60 Prospect Street 471557 174944 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 35 34 33 34 29
68 George Street 471913 174490 Roadside Diffusion Tube 92 92 34 33 31 33 27
40 George Street 471909 174543 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 42 44 47 45 38
241 Gosbrook Road 471942 174600 Roadside Diffusion Tube 100 100 35 35 34 35 31
  • Diffusion tube data has been bias corrected
  • Annualisation has been conducted where data capture is <75%
  • Reported concentrations are those at the location of the monitoring site (bias adjusted and annualised, as required), i.e. prior to any fall-off with distance adjustment

Notes:

  • Exceedances of the NO2 annual mean objective of 40µg/m3 are shown in bold.
  • NO2 annual means exceeding 60µg/m3, indicating a potential exceedance of the NO2 1-hour mean objective are shown in bold and underlined.

(1) Data capture for the monitoring period, in cases where monitoring was only carried out for part of the year.

(2) Data capture for the full calendar year (e.g. if monitoring was carried out for 6 months, the maximum data capture for the full calendar year is 50%).

(3) Means for diffusion tubes have been corrected for bias. All means have been “annualised” as per Boxes 7.9 and 7.10 in LAQM.TG16 if valid data capture for the full calendar year is less than 75%. See Appendix C for details.

(4) Concentrations are those at the location of monitoring and not those following any fall-off with distance adjustment.

Figure A.1 – Trends in Annual Mean NO2 Concentrations

Graph showing automatic monitoring stations annual mean NO2 concentrations from 2004 to 2019 on various Reading roads.

Table A.4 – 1-Hour Mean NO2 Monitoring Results

Site ID X OS Grid Ref (Easting) Y OS Grid Ref (Northing) Site Type Monitoring Type Valid Data Capture for Monitoring Period (%) (1) Valid Data Capture 2019 (%) (2) 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
AURN 473441 173198 Urban Background Automatic 58 58 0 4(112) 0 0 0(84)
RD1 471153 174429 Roadside Automatic 100 100 1 0 0 7 0
RD3 468700 174126 Roadside Automatic 99 99 0 0 1 0 0
RD4 473703 173409 Roadside Automatic 100 100   0 0 0 0

Notes:

Exceedances of the NO2 1-hour mean objective (200µg/m3 not to be exceeded more than 18 times/year) are shown in bold.

(1) Data capture for the monitoring period, in cases where monitoring was only carried out for part of the year.

(2) Data capture for the full calendar year (e.g. if monitoring was carried out for 6 months, the maximum data capture for the full calendar year is 50%).

(3) If the period of valid data is less than 85%, the 99.8th percentile of 1-hour means is provided in brackets.

Table A.5 – Annual Mean PM10 Monitoring Results

Site ID X OS Grid Ref (Easting) Y OS Grid Ref (Northing) Site Type Valid Data Capture for Monitoring Period (%) (1) Valid Data Capture 2019 (%) (2) 20152016201720182019
AURN 473441 173198 Urban Background 53 53 12 13 12 13 13
RD1 471153 174429 Roadside 98 98 28 20 23 24 24
RD3 468700 174126 Roadside 99 99 23 22 21 23 21
RD4 473703 173409 Roadside 93 93   19(19) 18 17 17

Annualisation has been conducted where data capture is <75%

Notes:

Exceedances of the PM10 annual mean objective of 40µg/m3 are shown in bold.

(1) Data capture for the monitoring period, in cases where monitoring was only carried out for part of the year.

(2) Data capture for the full calendar year (e.g. if monitoring was carried out for 6 months, the maximum data capture for the full calendar year is 50%).

(3) All means have been “annualised” as per Boxes 7.9 and 7.10 in LAQM.TG16, valid data capture for the full calendar year is less than 75%. See Appendix C for details.

Figure A.2 – Trends in Annual Mean PM10 Concentrations

Graph showing Trends in Annual Mean PM10 Concentrations from 2008 to 2019 over various Reading roads

Table A.6 – 24-Hour Mean PM10 Monitoring Results

Site ID X OS Grid Ref (Easting) Y OS Grid Ref (Northing) Site Type Valid Data Capture for Monitoring Period (%) (1) Valid Data Capture 2019 (%) (2) 20152016201720182019
AURN 473441 173198 Urban Background 53 53 0 3 3 1(24) 0(20)
RD1 471153 174429 Roadside 98 98 8(41) 5 7 3 11
RD3 468700 174126 Roadside 99 99 7 3 8 2 11
RD4 473703 173409 Roadside 93 93   2(30) 3 1 4

Notes:

Exceedances of the PM10 24-hour mean objective (50µg/m3 not to be exceeded more than 35 times/year) are shown in bold.

(1) Data capture for the monitoring period, in cases where monitoring was only carried out for part of the year.

(2) Data capture for the full calendar year (e.g. if monitoring was carried out for 6 months, the maximum data capture for the full calendar year is 50%).

(3) If the period of valid data is less than 85%, the 90.4th percentile of 24-hour means is provided in brackets.

Table A.7 – PM2.5 Monitoring Results

Site ID X OS Grid Ref (Easting) Y OS Grid Ref (Northing) Site Type Valid Data Capture for Monitoring Period (%) (1) Valid Data Capture 2019 (%) (2) 20152016201720182019
AURN 473441 173198 Urban Background 38 38 7 9 10 7 8

Annualisation has been conducted where data capture is <75%

Notes:

(1) Data capture for the monitoring period, in cases where monitoring was only carried out for part of the year.

(2) Data capture for the full calendar year (e.g. if monitoring was carried out for 6 months, the maximum data capture for the full calendar year is 50%).

(3) All means have been “annualised” as per Boxes 7.9 and 7.10 in LAQM.TG16, valid data capture for the full calendar year is less than 75%. See Appendix C for details.

Appendix B: Full Monthly Diffusion Tube Results for 2019

Table B.1 – NO2 Monthly Diffusion Tube Results – 2019

Site ID X OS Grid Ref (Easting) Y OS Grid Ref (Northing) JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Annual mean – raw data Annual mean – Bias Adjusted (0.87) and Annualised (1) Annual mean – Distance Corrected to Nearest Exposure (2)
King Oak Flats 472015 173223 39 37 31 37 32 25 27 26   32 36 31 32 28 28
181 Kings road 472513 173281 52 42   41 40 37 39 34     46   41 35  
Charles Place, 246 Kings Road 46955 173249 55 47 45 40 38   43 46 45 51 52 56 47 41  
AURN 473467 173207 31 26 19 18 13 13 11 14 17 19 28 19 19 17 17
AURN 473467 173207 29 27 19 21 13 12 11 13 17 20 29 19 19 17 17
AURN 473467 173207 25 27 19 21 14 13 12 14 17 18 30 22 19 17 17
Wycliffe Baptist Church 472071 173157 54 48 46 46 43 37 40 41 47 44 53 41 45 39 31
Amity Road 473233 173244 38 43 33 33 26 29 29 35 31 37 35   33 29 27
17 Church Rd Earley 474421 172054 51 48 37 35 37 34 39 40 43 45 26 35 39 34  
162 London Rd 473490 173326 45 55 46 45 36 39 43 42 42 44 41 42 43 38  
419 London Rd 473729 173432 47 46 42 44 39 35 40 37 40 39 37 34 40 35  
276 Kings Road 472716 173218 37 37 30 29 25 25 26 26 29 33 37   30 26  
Sidmouth Street – Trinity Hall 472071 173157 50 50 37 34 33 31 33 36 39 42 48 36 39 34 33
Shinfield Rd/Whitley Wood Rd 473338 170269 39 40 30 34 28 25 27 23 28     26 30 26  
Shinfield Rd/Cedar Rd 473354 170482 33 54 39   32 37 40 34 33 42 46 39 39 34 30
Exbourne Road 472341 169731   26 18 18 13 13 11 12 15 20 27 19 18 15  
Red Cow 471685 172853 42 46 35 37 36 32 29 27 36 38 44 31 36 31  
44 Crown Street 471717 172856 40 40 34 35 33 26 32 27 32 34 44 29 34 29  
Blenheim Terrace, Castle Hill 471061 173018 51 51 45 35 34 33 32 33 36 38 42 40 39 34 33
128 Castle Hill 470987 173016 58 50 43 49 44 31 41 37 43 42 48   44 39  
162a Castle Hill 470835 172992 57 44 46 35 33 37   29 35 35 44 32 39 34  
306 Tilehurst Rd/Water Rd 468866 173071 44 41 33 39 30 30 29 27 35 23 40 38 34 30 28
689 Oxford Rd 468978 173895 41 48 41 41 39 35 37 37 42 46 40 39 41 35  
744 Oxford Rd 468967 173935 49 53 41 50 44 46 38 42 50 41 45 40 45 39  
494 Oxford Rd 469470 173715 39 40 32 42 33 31 27 23 33 34 41 28 34 29  
Cow Lane Bridges 470230 173818 43 44 34 44   31 33   40 42 46 35 39 34 28
252 Oxford Rd 470080 143511 36 44 43 41 31 32 29 31 36 35 42 33 36 31  
327 Oxford Rd 470057 173489 42 53 33 36 36 34 38 38 41 39 36 38 39 34  
281 Oxford Rd 470294 173445 47 55 40 42 35 35 34 42 39 44 34 43 41 36  
Malthouse Lane 48360 173511 40 49   33 32 29 30 35 35 38 37 34 36 31  
the Butler 48360 173517 42 49 32 49 34 32 31 30 35 39   32 37 32 30
10 Trinity Place 470738 173433 39 38 27 34 27 26 24 24 29 31 33 30 30 26  
165 Oxford Rd 470717 173373 49 56 42 42 38 36 36 38 37 42 45 41 42 37  
Sackville Street 471177 173641 40 47 34 43 33 31 31 33 38 40   35 37 32  
Friar St (Nandos) 471437 173589 59 57 53 50 51 44 42 43 46 32 45 43 47 41 37
21A Friars Walk, Friars Street 471373 173584 55 49 50 49 41 39 37 40 46 45 51 36 45 39 35
Sainsburys 52-55 Friar Street 471320 173577 53 52 49 57 49 40 36 37 42 41 53   46 40 36
Station Hill 2(Near Bus stop WN) 471324 173820 52 47 40 57 42 43 38 34 46     39 44 38 29
Station Hill 1 (Near Taxi Station) 471413 173808 50 48 46 45   32   34 41   49 39 43 35 27
33 Caversham Rd 471123 173734 49 52 48 47 39 34 36 35 40 28   40 41 35  
Malcolm Place 471174 173846 67 66 66 55   51 61 67 54 62 53 62 60 52 43
50 Cardiff Rd 470828 174076 36 36 26 26 19 19 16 22 21 25 30 25 25 22  
125 Cardiff Rd 470866 174059 31 31 22 22 17 16 16 16 20 24 24 27 22 19 19
131 Caversham Rd 471261 174236 40 48 36 30 31 31 29 35 37 39 46 40 37 32  
31a Vastern Rd 471420 174129 43 49 36 27 25 24 30 36 34 35 9 37 32 28 27
108 Caversham Rd 471293 174236 43 42 40 44 40 38 36 34 40 39 47 43 41 35  
Caversham AQMS 471156 174424 38 35 29 42 35 36 36 36 42 36 45 32 37 32 30
Caversham AQMS 471156 174424 39 39 33 44 38 38 33 40 11 39 48 32 36 31 30
Caversham AQMS 471156 174424 37 42 31 43 38 37 36 41 40 39   56 40 35 33
197 Caversham Rd 471161 174379 47 54 44 35 30 25 25 26 29 27 38 41 35 31  
Railway Depot 470899 174017 34 37 25 24 19 16 15 24 24 25 35 25 25 22  
14 Church Road 471103 174774 42 43 31 40 30 33 35 36 38 38 46 38 37 33  
Cavesham Café 471401 174790 48 46 41 42 39 35 36 34 36 40 44 35 40 35 34
Baron Cadagon 471461 174840 48 51 46 39 41 41 36 40 39 12 56 53 42 36  
45 Prospect Street 471558 174919 34 52 41 38 35 33 31 37 36 38 42 40 38 33  
59 Prospect Street 471599 174966 48 59 48 50 45 40 42 40 48 48 54 47 48 41  
60 Prospect Street 471557 174944 39 38 36 35 30 27 26 26 34 35 37 34 33 29  
68 George Street 471913 174490 38 40 31 26 28 25 24 28 33 33 37   31 27  
40 George Street 471909 174543 52 54 49 38 38 39 39 46 46 41 46 43 44 38  
241 Gosbrook Road 471942 174600 42 50 33 33 31 30 30 33 34 38 37 37 36 31  
  • Local bias adjustment factor used
  • National bias adjustment factor used
  • Annualisation has been conducted where data capture is <75%
  • Where applicable, data has been distance corrected for relevant exposure in the final column

Notes:

Exceedances of the NO2 annual mean objective of 40µg/m3 are shown in bold.

NO2 annual means exceeding 60µg/m3, indicating a potential exceedance of the NO2 1-hour mean objective are shown in bold and underlined.

(1) See Appendix C for details on bias adjustment and annualisation.

(2) Distance corrected to nearest relevant public exposure.

Appendix C: Supporting Technical Information / Air Quality Monitoring Data QA/QC

QA/QC

Reading Borough Council operate a network of NO2 passive diffusion tubes, the tubes are supplied and analysed by Gradko International using the preparation method 50% TEA in acetone. The tubes are exposed for approximately one month following the standard exposure calendar, all sites use single tubes other than the co-location studies where triplicate tubes are deployed.

The Gradko laboratory is UKAS accredited, follows the procedures set out in the harmonisation practical guidance and participates in the AIR-PT NO2 proficiency testing scheme.

Under the AIR-PT scheme Gradko tubes were found to have satisfactory performance under the new criteria using Z- score performance for the most recent AIR-PT rounds 24 to 34 (Jan 2018 – Nov 2019) as in all previous rounds.

Reading carry out two local co-location studies; one is situated at the Defra AURN urban background analyser, and the other is situated at the RBC owned continuous roadside monitor on Caversham Road. Although co-location study data was available, the average from the national dataset has been applied to the RBC 2018 data (0.87). The national figure was chosen because it has been used as the bias adjustment factor in the previous 12 years, creating a consistent approach, enabling trends in the historic data to be more easily identified

Distance correction has been applied to NO2 diffusion tube results where monitoring sites are not representative of public exposure using the NO2 fall-off with distance calculator (see Table C.1 below for example) available on the LAQM website.

Table C.1 Example Calculation 181 Kings Road using NO2 Fall-off with Distance Calculator

Example Calculation 181 Kings Road using NO2 Fall-off with Distance Calculator

Data capture at the Reading New Town AURN was very low this year so it has been necessary to carry out annualization for NO2 (table C.2), PM10 (table C.5) and PM2.5 (table C.6) data from the site. It has also been necessary to carry out annualisation of 2 of the diffusion tubes this year (181 Kings Road and Station Hill 1) due to less than >75% data being collected for these sites. The workings for this process are provided in table C.3 and C.4 below.

Table C.2 Annualisation for Reading New Town NO2

Month Harlington London Rd Oxford St Ebbs London Hillingdon
Jan 40.75 35.95238095 21.07142857 52.71428571 34.11538462
Feb 49.28 31.18518519 21.59259259 68  
Mar 29.32142857 27.14285714 14.39285714 50  
Apr 32.14285714 37.42857143 16.42857143 46.57142857  
May 24.34285714 24.14285714 17.54285714 38.08571429  
Jun 20.28571429 21.71428571 17.57142857 38  
Jul 20.45714286 19.82857143 11.53333333 36.17142857  
Aug 24.96428571 16.14814815 8.5 44.2 14.32
Sep 28.11111111 23 11.92857143 38.17857143 16.54545455
Oct 31.51428571 25.75862069 12.48571429 44.6 19.11428571
Nov 38 35.85714286 21.39285714 47.64285714 26.46428571
Dec 34.2 22.77142857 15.42857143 48.68571429 20.82857143
Average 31.11414021 26.74417077 15.82239859 46.07083333 21.897997
Period Mean 32.92328042 26.58128687 15.13452381 46.00357143 21.897997
Ratio 0.945049819 1.006127766 1.045450705 1.001462102
Average Ratio 0.999522598
Annualised 21.88754286

Table C.3 Annualisation for 181 Kings Road

Month Harlington London Rd Oxford St Ebbs London Hillingdon 181 Kings Rd
Jan 40.75 35.95238095 21.07142857 52.71428571 51.52
Feb 49.28 31.18518519 21.59259259 68 42.44
Mar 29.32142857 27.14285714 14.39285714 50  
Apr 32.14285714 37.42857143 16.42857143 46.57142857 41.43
May 24.34285714 24.14285714 17.54285714 38.08571429 39.64
Jun 20.28571429 21.71428571 17.57142857 38 36.64
Jul 20.45714286 19.82857143 11.53333333 36.17142857 39.14
Aug 24.96428571 16.14814815 8.5 44.2 34.04
Sep 28.11111111 23 11.92857143 38.17857143  
Oct 31.51428571 25.75862069 12.48571429 44.6  
Nov 38 35.85714286 21.39285714 47.64285714 45.76
Dec 34.2 22.77142857 15.42857143 48.68571429  
Average 31.11414021 26.74417077 15.82239859 46.07083333 41.3264964
Period Mean 31.27785714 27.78214286 16.9541336 46.42321429 41.3264964
Ratio 0.994765724 0.962638876 0.933247252 0.992409381
Average Ratio 0.970765308
Annualised 40.11832901

Table C.4. Annualisation for Station Hill 1

Month Harlington London Rd Oxford St Ebbs London Hillingdon Station Hill 1
Jan 40.75 35.95238095 21.07142857 52.71428571 50.47
Feb 49.28 31.18518519 21.59259259 68 47.76
Mar 29.32142857 27.14285714 14.39285714 50 45.94
Apr 32.14285714 37.42857143 16.42857143 46.57142857 44.6
May 24.34285714 24.14285714 17.54285714 38.08571429  
Jun 20.28571429 21.71428571 17.57142857 38 32.49
Jul 20.45714286 19.82857143 11.53333333 36.17142857  
Aug 24.96428571 16.14814815 8.5 44.2 33.94
Sep 28.11111111 23 11.92857143 38.17857143 40.59
Oct 31.51428571 25.75862069 12.48571429 44.6  
Nov 38 35.85714286 21.39285714 47.64285714 48.97
Dec 34.2 22.77142857 15.42857143 48.68571429 38.98
Average 31.11414021 26.74417077 15.82239859 46.07083333 42.63769204
Period Mean 33.0061552 27.91111111 16.47854203 48.22142857 42.63769204
Ratio 0.942676904 0.958190832 0.960181948 0.955401669
Average Ratio 0.954112838
Annualised 40.68116937

Table C.5 Annualisation of Reading New Town PM10

Type London Harlington Oxford St Ebbes Reading London Road Chilbolton Observatory Reading New Town
Average 15.05382436 14.23098592 17.17065868 11.90082645 11.50793651
Period Mean 13.1978022 11.5 16.57065217 10.2513369
Mean Ratio 1.140631155 1.237477036 1.036208986 1.160904823
Average ratio 1.1438055
Annualisation 13.16284107

Table C.6 Annualisation of Reading New Town PM2.5

Type London Harlington Oxford St Ebbes Reading London Road Chilbolton Observatory Reading New Town
Average 9.555240793 8.899425287 8.03030303 8.997024 9.507246
Period Mean 9.246376812 8.109375 7.522058824 8.415385 9.507246
Mean Ratio 1.033403785 1.097424313 1.067567167 1.069116
Average ratio 1.06687786
Annualisation 10.14307

Appendix D: Map(s) of Monitoring Locations and AQMAs

Figure D.1 Map of Diffusion Tube Locations & AQMA

Figure D.1 Map of Diffusion Tube Locations & AQMA

Figure D.2 Map of London Road AQMS

Map of London Road AQMS

Figure D.3 Map of Caversham Road AQMS

Figure D.3 Map of Caversham Road AQMS

Figure D.4 Map of Oxford Road AQMS

Figure D.4 Map of Oxford Road AQMS

Appendix E: Summary of Air Quality Objectives in England

Table E.1 – Air Quality Objectives in England

Pollutant Concentration Measured as
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 200 µg/m3 not to be exceeded more than 18 times a year

40 µg/m3
1-hour mean

Annual mean
Particulate Matter (PM10) 50 µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 35 times a year

40 µg/m3
24-hour mean

Annual mean
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 350 µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 24 times a year

125 µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 3 times a year

266 µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 35 times a year
1-hour mean

24-hour mean

15-minute mean

Glossary of Terms

AbbreviationDescription
AQAP Air Quality Action Plan – A detailed description of measures, outcomes, achievement dates and implementation methods, showing how the local authority intends to achieve air quality limit values’
AQMA Air Quality Management Area – An area where air pollutant concentrations exceed / are likely to exceed the relevant air quality objectives. AQMAs are declared for specific pollutants and objectives
ASR Air quality Annual Status Report
Defra Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
DMRB Design Manual for Roads and Bridges – Air quality screening tool produced by Highways England
EU European Union
FDMS Filter Dynamics Measurement System
LAQM Local Air Quality Management
NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide
NOx Nitrogen Oxides
PM10 Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10µm (micrometres or microns) or less
PM2.5 Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5µm or less
QA/QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control
SO2 Sulphur Dioxide

References

  • RBC 2018 Annual Status Report
  • Reading Borough council Targeted Feasibility Study
  • Development Control and Planning (EPUK)
  • Policy Guidance (PG16)
  • Technical Guidance (TG16)